Cannabinoid / Terpenoid table
For a guide to see what sorts of strains can be used for which condition(s), see this article here.
In the meantime, though, here’s a handy table of the huge numbers of helpful, medically-beneficial compounds found in marijuana …
|Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)||The main “psychoactive” cannabinoid found in cannabis. THC enabled scientists to discover the Endocannabinoid system in vertebrate mammals. Especially effective for pain, nausea, tumors and ADHD.|
|Delta-1 Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCa/THCA)||Not psychoactive. THCa is an anti-inflammatory, encourages appetite, combats insomnia, is anti-tumor and is an antispasmodic.|
|Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv/THCV)||Has no known effect, but may have some uses for diabetes. May be somewhat psychoactive, and is generally found in higher concentrations in African landrace strains. Thought to be one of the main reasons why such strains have “buzzy”, “racy” effects.|
|Cannabidiol (CBD)||The other main cannabinoid found in marijuana, alongside THC. CBD is thought to be non-psychoactive, although there are some reports of slight psychoactivity by some users. CBD works in many of the same areas as THC. It is for this reason that CBD has become the new “sought-after” cannabinoid. CBD works in combination with THC and other cannabinoids, psychoactive or otherwise, making this view short-sighted. As CBD has physiological effects, it could be said to be psychoactive to some degree, even if it’s not to the same degree as THC.
CBD has broad spectrum use, and can be used for pain, stress, asthma, seizure disorders such as MS and epilepsy, and lowering blood sugar levels for diabetes. CBD is also an anti-inflammatory and cancer-killing cannabinoid.
|Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDa/CBDA)||CBDa has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. Until recently, found mostly in Cannabis ruderalis, which is the type of cannabis used to create auto-flowering strains. Strains such as Cannatonic and ACDC have been developed to produce more CBD/CBDa than THC/THCa.|
|Cannabichromene (CBC)||CBC is also non-psychoactive, and it is suggested that CBC is up to 10 times more effective than CBD for treating stress and anxiety (anxiolytic). Also used to treat inflammation and pain relief. CBC has antiviral and anti-tumor properties, and has been shown to stimulate the growth of bone tissue.|
|Cannabigerol (CBG)||Non-psychoactive. Stimulates bone growth and brain cell growth. Combats insomnia. Antibacterial and anti-tumor. CBG is a neurogenic compound, and as such is useful in the treatment of nerve pain. Of particular interest to MS, ME, ALS, head/brain trauma, cancer and HIV/AIDS sufferers. Psoriasis and IBS sufferers may benefit, too.
CBG is one of the few genuinely neurogenic compounds around in the world, and is rarely found in nature.
|Cannabinol (CBN)||Cannabinol is a byproduct of oxidized THC, and normally forms after THC is exposed to oxygen or heat. Older cannabis that’s been exposed to air also shows a slightly higher level of CBN, as THC breaks down to CBN. CBN is slightly psychoactive and a medium to strong sedative. Useful as an antiemetic, anticonvulsant and in the treatment of insomnia.|
|Alpha- and Beta – Pinene||This is what gives some marijuana its “pine” like smell. Pinene is also found in pine needles, dill, parsley, rosemary and basil. Effects include alertness, memory retention and counteracting some of the effects of THC. Useful for asthmatics and as an antiseptic.
Jack Herer, Super Silver Haze (SSH), Neville’s Haze, Chemdawg and Trainwreck have high amounts of pinene.
|Myrcene||Ever wondered why beer and marijuana have similar sedating effects? That’s because hops contain myrcene, and so do some types of marijuana. Mango, lemongrass and thyme also contain myrcene.
Myrcene is an antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant. Great for sleeplessness and muscle tension, too. Works in combination with CBD for a “couchlock” effect. High myrcene strains include pure Pure Kush, Skunk #1, Himalayan Gold and White Widow. Can sometimes be found in Blueberry- and White Widow- based strains, too.
|Limonene||As the name of the terpene suggests, limonene is responsible for that “citrus” or “lemony” aroma and taste found in some strains. Limonene is found in fruit rinds, juniper berries, peppermint and rosemary. Provides for an elevated mood and stress relief.
OG Kush, Lemon Thai, Super Lemon Haze, Jack the Ripper and Lemon Skunk are all high in limonene.
|Beta-Caryophyllene||Beta-Caryophyllene is found in black pepper, cloves, black caraway and cinnamon. Has no psychoactive effect. Could be useful as an anti-inflammatory. Caryophyllene has use as an antinociceptive (pain blocker), neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant.
Though not psychoactive, beta-caryophyllene interacts with other phytocannabinoids and can be used for the treatment of pain, inflammation, addiction (particularly alcohol and opiate addiction), anxiety, depression, epilepsy, and fungal and bacterial infections. Hash Plant is a strain that tends to have lots of caryophyllene in it, and Thai- and Vietnamese-.based strains like Chocolope Haze and Willie Nelson could be high in caryophyllene.
|Linalool||Ever smelt some strains of marijuana and found that they smell like flowers or certain types of air freshener? That’s probably because said strain contains linalool, a terpene also found in lavender and jasmine.
Linalool is useful for anxiety relief and sedation, and also has anticonvulsant, antidepressant and anti-acne properties. Amnesia Haze, Lavender, Master Kush, LA Confidential and G-13 all have lots of linalool in them. Many blueberry- or purple- based strains (e.g. Grand Daddy Purple, Purple Kush) also have moderate to high amounts of linalool in them.
|Humulene||Humulene occurs naturally in clove, basil and hops. Earthy, woody, spicy aromas and flavors are usually associated with humulene, and as such you are likely to find it in abundance in sativa-leaning strains like Congo Haze, Mango Haze, Girl Scout Cookies, and Headband. Indica-leaning strains like Pink Kush and Skywalker OG also contain humulene.
Humulene is an antibacterial, antitumoral and anti-inflammatory.
|Bisabolol||Bisabolol is another flowery-smelling terpene found in cannabis, and has been used in cosmetics for a number of years now. Chamomile and candeia trees contain high quantities of bisabolol, and as such this terpene has low-psychoactivity.
Bisabolol has anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. Harle-Tsu, ACDC, OG Shark, Rockstar and God Bud have high concentrations of bisabolol.
|Trans-Nerolidol||This terpene is most often found in tea tree, jasmine tea and lemongrass, and is thought to contribute to sedative effects. There are also suggestions that trans-nerolidol has antiparasitic, antifungal and antimicrobial properties, and could well inhibit the growth of leishmaniasis (a disease caused by protozoan parasites spread by sandfly bites).
Both indicas and sativas with high levels of THC tend to have high amounts of this terpene, so think Aurora Indica, Strawberry Cough, Moby Dick, Maui Waui, Sweet Island Skunk and Sensi Star.
Please remember that concentrations of the above cannabinoids and terpenes vary not only from strain-to-strain, but from phenotype-to-phenotype as well, as some strains result in different types of marijuana. To give an example, growing 12 Super Silver Haze (50% Haze, 25% Skunk, 25% Northern Lights) seeds will likely lead to 6 Haze-dominant phenotypes and 3 Skunk- and 3 Northern Lights- dominant phenotypes, all with different concentrations of various cannabinoids and terpenes.
The skill of the grower, the environment the cannabis was grown in, the age of the cannabis and how well the marijuana flowers were dried and cured also affect a plant’s cannabinoid and terpene concentrations. The only way you’re going to find out the best medicine for you is by seeing if you qualify for a Medical Marijuana Card with Dr. Frank and testing out some dispensary medications as soon as possible!
A lot more research is needed in order to prove cannabis’s efficacy for many conditions, especially regarding the different cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles of particular strains, products and extractions, and how they can help (or hinder) treatment. You may well still need other medications (cannabis is not an anti-rejection tablet for organs, for example!), and in some instances cannabis may interfere with existing conditions and medications. Always ask your primary care physician if you are unsure about anything!
Another issue is comorbidity. You may suffer from one condition that merits the use of cannabis, and another where cannabis may not be as useful, e.g. schizophrenia, although there are studies taking place with CBD being a potential antipsychotic. However, where cannabinoid-based medications may prove useful is in reducing the number of other medications needed, especially potentially dangerous and/or addictive ones such as opioids, benzodiazepines and powerful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This potentially means less need to balance out a range of pharmaceutical drugs so that they do not react negatively with each other and the body.
Please remember that much of what we write is theory and supposition. For many of these conditions, the efficacy of cannabis has not yet been proven-beyond-doubt – a fact exacerbated by the fact that there are not a huge number of properly-controlled studies out there. Hopefully, this will change in the future, and the federal government decides to take a more neutral, objective and, perhaps most importantly, scientific stance on cannabis and research into cannabinoid-based medications.