ADHD, which was formerly known as ADD, is a neurodevelopmental mental disorder, characterized by problems paying attention, excessive fidgeting and difficulty controlling behavior. Symptoms usually appear before the age of 12 years old and last for at least 6 months, with significant problems at home, school and during recreational activities.
ADHD is estimated to affect 51.1 million people globally. It is estimated that ADHD affectS about 5% – 7% of children and 2% – 5% of adults, depending upon which criteria are used. According to the CDC, around 11% of children (6.4 million) suffered from ADHD in 2011-12 in the US. Treatments include counselling, planned routines and lifestyle changes and stimulant medications such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and dextroamphetamine (Adderall) . It is thought that ADHD is linked to sub-performance of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. Methylphenidate is also a weak 5-HT1A agonist.